Semiconductor main memory is an integral part of the modern computing system. It enables us to store and retrieve data in a fast and efficient manner, providing quick access to information that would otherwise be unavailable or take too long to obtain. In this blog post, we will explore different types of semiconductor main
Locality of reference describes a property of computer systems where the access patterns of a program or system tend to cluster around locations and over a short period of time. This behavior can be exploited by computer systems to optimize memory and cache usage, resulting in improved performance. Locality of reference can have significant impacts
Physical cache refers to memory that is physically located on a computer or device, such as CPU cache or disk cache. A virtual cache usually refers to a cache that uses virtual addresses instead of physical addresses for mapping into RAM. The difference is that a physical address needs to be translated into a
Cache memory is an important component of modern computer systems, as it enables data to be accessed quickly and efficiently. This article will explain the purpose of cache memory, how it works, its benefits and types as well as when it should be used rather than main memory. With this knowledge in hand, you
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) was developed by Intel as a processor-independent bus. PCI is completely in the public domain and became established as a standard for high-speed connections of peripheral devices to the motherboard. Because of its versatility, it has increasingly been used in server systems in the 1990s. PCI Express (PCIe) is a
A bus in computer architecture is a medium for transmitting information between devices. In a typical computer, you have a central processing unit, system memory, and some I/O devices that need to communicate with each other. Busses connect all of these components together as a shared transmission medium. This means a signal sent by
In this post, we will understand how a CPU executes instructions on a high level by illustrating the instruction cycle using a step-by-step example. We also cover interrupts and how they affect the instruction cycle. A CPU executes instructions using a cycle of steps known as the instruction cycle. What is an Instruction Cycle?
The von Neumann architecture is a foundational computer hardware architecture that most modern computer systems are built upon. It consists of the control unit, the arithmetic, and logic unit, the memory unit, registers, and input and output devices. The key features of the von Neumann architecture are: Data as well as the program operating
In this post, we will understand the Liskov substitution principle and illustrate how it works with an extended example in Java. The Liskov substitution principle states that an object of a superclass should be replaceable with an object of any of its subclasses. It is one of the SOLID design principles in object-oriented software
The open-closed principle states that classes and modules in a software system should be open for extension but closed for modification. It is one of the SOLID principles for software design.In this post, we will build a step-by-step understanding of the open/closed principle using examples in Java. Why Should You Apply the Open/Closed Principle?