Author Archive

An Introduction to Semiconductor Main Memory

Semiconductor main memory is an integral part of the modern computing system. It enables us to store and retrieve data in a fast and efficient manner, providing quick access to information that would otherwise be unavailable or take too long to obtain. In this blog post, we will explore different types of semiconductor main

Understanding Locality of Reference and its Implications

Locality of reference describes a property of computer systems where the access patterns of a program or system tend to cluster around locations and over a short period of time. This behavior can be exploited by computer systems to optimize memory and cache usage, resulting in improved performance. Locality of reference can have significant impacts

Physical Cache vs. Virtual Cache vs. Virtual Memory: Understand How Caching Solutions Work and Where They Differ

Physical cache refers to memory that is physically located on a computer or device, such as CPU cache or disk cache. A virtual cache usually refers to a cache that uses virtual addresses instead of physical addresses for mapping into RAM. The difference is that a physical address needs to be translated into a

What is the Purpose of Cache Memory and How Does It Work?

Cache memory is an important component of modern computer systems, as it enables data to be accessed quickly and efficiently. This article will explain the purpose of cache memory, how it works, its benefits and types as well as when it should be used rather than main memory. With this knowledge in hand, you

How PCI-Express and PCI work: An Introduction

Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) was developed by Intel as a processor-independent bus. PCI is completely in the public domain and became established as a standard for high-speed connections of peripheral devices to the motherboard. Because of its versatility, it has increasingly been used in server systems in the 1990s. PCI Express (PCIe) is a

From the Computer Bus to Point-to-Point Interconnect: An Overview of Bus Interconnection Structures

A bus in computer architecture is a medium for transmitting information between devices. In a typical computer, you have a central processing unit, system memory, and some I/O devices that need to communicate with each other. Busses connect all of these components together as a shared transmission medium. This means a signal sent by

How does a CPU Execute Instructions: Understanding Instruction Cycles

In this post, we will understand how a CPU executes instructions on a high level by illustrating the instruction cycle using a step-by-step example. We also cover interrupts and how they affect the instruction cycle. A CPU executes instructions using a cycle of steps known as the instruction cycle. What is an Instruction Cycle?

What is the Von Neumann Architecture

The von Neumann architecture is a foundational computer hardware architecture that most modern computer systems are built upon. It consists of the control unit, the arithmetic, and logic unit, the memory unit, registers, and input and output devices. The key features of the von Neumann architecture are: Data as well as the program operating

What is the Liskov Substitution Principle: An Explanation with Examples in Java

In this post, we will understand the Liskov substitution principle and illustrate how it works with an extended example in Java. The Liskov substitution principle states that an object of a superclass should be replaceable with an object of any of its subclasses. It is one of the SOLID design principles in object-oriented software

What is the Open/Closed Principle: An Explanation with Examples in Java

The open-closed principle states that classes and modules in a software system should be open for extension but closed for modification. It is one of the SOLID principles for software design.In this post, we will build a step-by-step understanding of the open/closed principle using examples in Java. Why Should You Apply the Open/Closed Principle?