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How PCI-Express and PCI work: An Introduction

Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) was developed by Intel as a processor-independent bus. PCI is completely in the public domain and became established as a standard for high-speed connections of peripheral devices to the motherboard. Because of its versatility, it has increasingly been used in server systems in the 1990s. PCI Express (PCIe) is a

From the Computer Bus to Point-to-Point Interconnect: An Overview of Bus Interconnection Structures

A bus in computer architecture is a medium for transmitting information between devices. In a typical computer, you have a central processing unit, system memory, and some I/O devices that need to communicate with each other. Busses connect all of these components together as a shared transmission medium. This means a signal sent by

How does a CPU Execute Instructions: Understanding Instruction Cycles

In this post, we will understand how a CPU executes instructions on a high level by illustrating the instruction cycle using a step-by-step example. We also cover interrupts and how they affect the instruction cycle. A CPU executes instructions using a cycle of steps known as the instruction cycle. What is an Instruction Cycle?

What is the Von Neumann Architecture

The von Neumann architecture is a foundational computer hardware architecture that most modern computer systems are built upon. It consists of the control unit, the arithmetic, and logic unit, the memory unit, registers, and input and output devices. The key features of the von Neumann architecture are: Data as well as the program operating

What is the Liskov Substitution Principle: An Explanation with Examples in Java

In this post, we will understand the Liskov substitution principle and illustrate how it works with an extended example in Java. The Liskov substitution principle states that an object of a superclass should be replaceable with an object of any of its subclasses. It is one of the SOLID design principles in object-oriented software

What is the Open/Closed Principle: An Explanation with Examples in Java

The open-closed principle states that classes and modules in a software system should be open for extension but closed for modification. It is one of the SOLID principles for software design.In this post, we will build a step-by-step understanding of the open/closed principle using examples in Java. Why Should You Apply the Open/Closed Principle?

The Single Responsibility Principle

What is the Single Responsibility Principle? The SRP is often misinterpreted to stipulate that a module should only do one thing. While designing functions only to have one purpose is good software engineering practice, it is not what the single responsibility principle states. In a nutshell, the single responsibility principle is one of the

What is the Best Math Course for Machine Learning

Learning the required mathematics is often perceived as one of the biggest obstacles by people trying to get started in machine learning. Mathematical concepts from linear algebra, statistics, and calculus are foundational to many machine learning algorithms. Luckily, the past several years have seen the proliferation of several online courses and other learning resources.

What is the Sliding Window Algorithm?

The sliding window algorithm is a method for performing operations on sequences such as arrays and strings. By using this method, time complexity can be reduced from O(n3) to O(n2) or from O(n2) to O(n). As the subarray moves from one end of the array to the other, it looks like a sliding window.

Deep Learning Architectures for Object Detection: Yolo vs. SSD vs. RCNN

In this post, we will look at the major deep learning architectures that are used in object detection. We first develop an understanding of the region proposal algorithms that were central to the initial object detection architectures. Then we dive into the architectures of various forms of RCNN, YOLO, and SSD and understand what