Probability and Statistics Archive

T-Tests: A comprehensive introduction

In this post, we define the t-test in statistics, explain what different t-tests exist, and demonstrate by example how we can use them to find the differences between means in various scenarios. What is a T-Test? The

Chi-Square Test for Independence and Goodness of Fit

In this post, we will introduce the chi-square test. We discuss how to calculate a chi-square statistic, how to perform a chi-square test for independence, and finally how to use the chi-square test for goodness of fit.

Type 1 and Type 2 Error

When you are testing hypotheses, you might encounter type 1 and type 2 errors. Identifying them and dealing with them is essential for setting up statistical testing scenarios. They also play a huge role in machine learning.

Z Score Table for Confidence Intervals

Negative Z Table These are z-values to the left of the mean. Positive Z Table These are z-values to the right of the mean. Two-Sided Z-Score Table These are z_Value to the left and the right of

Student’s T-Distribution

In this post we introduce student’s t-distribution and learn how to construct t-confidence intervals. The t distribution is usually applied when you want to estimate the mean of normally distributed data but the sample size is small

T- Distribution Table

Chi-Square Distribution Table

Chi-Square Distribution and Degrees of Freedom

In this post, we introduce the Chi-Square distribution discuss the concept of degrees of freedom learn how to construct Chi-Square confidence intervals If you want to know how to perform chi-square testing for independence or goodness of

Hypothesis Testing and P-Values

Hypothesis testing in statistics allows you to make informed decisions using data.In a hypothesis testing scenario, you have a null hypothesis that represents the status quo. Through the collection and analysis of data, you try to refute

Confidence Intervals and Z Score

In this post, we learn how to construct confidence intervals. Confidence Interval Interpretation and Definition Confidence intervals are a type of statistical estimate to measure the probability that a certain parameter or value lies within a specific