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Abstraction in OOPS: An Introduction With Examples in Java and Python

In this post we will develop an understanding of abstraction in object oriented programming and learn how to apply abstraction in Java and Python. What is Abstraction (in Computer Science)? Abstraction in everyday language refers to the practice of removing concrete details and dealing only with ideas that are relevant to the problem at

What is Polymorphism: An Introduction with Examples in Java and Python

In this post, we will introduce the object-oriented programming concept of polymorphism using examples in Java and Python. What is Polymorphism? Polymorphism is the ability of an object to assume multiple forms. For example, a motorbike is some type of bike. It is also some type of motorized vehicle. The motorbike is polymorphic because

What is Inheritance: An Explanation with Examples in Java and Python

In this post, we introduce inheritance, a foundational concept in object-oriented programming, with examples in Java and Python. What is inheritance? In a software engineering context, inheritance describes a relationship between classes that facilitates the sharing of code. A class becomes a subclass of another class known as the superclass. The subclass can inherit

Basic OOPs Concepts in Python

In this post, we introduce the basics of object-oriented programming in Python. We discuss how to create objects and classes, variables, methods, and the difference between instance methods and static methods. Procedural Programming vs Object-Oriented Programming Python is an extremely versatile language that can be used for a variety of tasks such as software

Basic OOPs Concepts in Java

This post introduces the basics of object-oriented programming and how to create classes and objects in Java. We discuss the uses of Java keywords like, “new”, “this” or “static” as well as the access modifiers “public” and “private”. What is a Class in Java? A class is the elementary building block of an object-oriented

Logistic Regression in Python

In this post, we are going to perform binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression in Python using SKLearn. If you want to know how the logistic regression algorithm works, check out this post. Binary Logistic Regression in Python For this example, we are going to use the breast cancer classification dataset that comes

Chi-Square Test for Independence and Goodness of Fit

In this post, we will introduce the chi-square test. We discuss how to calculate a chi-square statistic, how to perform a chi-square test for independence, and finally how to use the chi-square test for goodness of fit. What is a Chi-Square Test? Pearson’s chi-square test in statistics measures the difference between an observed value

The Softmax Function and Multinomial Logistic Regression

In this post, we will introduce the softmax function and discuss how it can help us in a logistic regression analysis setting with more than two classes. This is known as multinomial logistic regression and should not be confused with multiple logistic regression which describes a scenario with multiple predictors. What is the Softmax

The Sigmoid Function and Binary Logistic Regression

In this post, we introduce the sigmoid function and understand how it helps us to perform binary logistic regression. We will further discuss the gradient descent for the logistic regression model (logit model). In linear regression, we are constructing a regression line of the form y = kx + d. Within the specified range,

Linear Regression in Python

This post is about doing simple linear regression and multiple linear regression in Python. If you want to understand how linear regression works, check out this post. To perform linear regression, we need Python’s package numpy as well as the package sklearn for scientific computing. Furthermore, we import matplotlib for plotting. Simple Linear Regression
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